Author Topic: Guided Group Interaction (GGI)  (Read 7322 times)

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Offline Ursus

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Guided Group Interaction (GGI)
« on: September 13, 2011, 10:41:04 AM »
Guided Group Interaction (GGI) is the direct predecessor to Positive Peer Culture (PPC), a TC-like modality used, in one form or another, in many if not most programs found on fornits.

To my knowledge, GGI was first formulated in the early 1940s, primarily by Lloyd W. McCorkle, as a behavior modification tool in "rehabilitating" military prisoners at the Fort Knox Barracks in Kentucky.

The intent was not rehabilitation which addressed the needs of the individuals in question, although I'm sure some such gains were made. Rather, the form of group therapy then known as GGI was expressly for the purpose of returning these soldiers to the arena of war.
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Offline Xelebes

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Re: Guided Group Interaction (GGI)
« Reply #1 on: September 13, 2011, 09:13:00 PM »
Would make sense that upon quacks hearing this that they would try it out by themselves.
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Offline Ursus

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Re: Guided Group Interaction (GGI)
« Reply #2 on: September 14, 2011, 02:50:31 PM »
Quote from: "Xelebes"
Would make sense that upon quacks hearing this that they would try it out by themselves.
Well, yes. And this is in fact what ultimately happened. But not without the government's help and encouragement, at least initially!

There was a time when the juvenile justice system in certain states was actively recruiting participation from the private sector, trying to get them to employ this "new" methodology. Oliver Keller's actions in the late 1960s and early 1970s, as Director of Florida's Division of Youth Services, and later as head of Florida's Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, certainly come to mind here.

Keller was recruited from Illinois to help close down large abusive institutions like Marianna. GGI was among Keller's favored and recommended methodologies, when attempting to court private investment in what he referred to as "smaller community-based programs."

Back then, psychological coercion was seen as a kinder gentler form of behavior modification, when compared to the crude and more brutally obvious physical coercion then practiced in juvenile corrections.
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Offline Awake

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Re: Guided Group Interaction (GGI)
« Reply #3 on: October 08, 2011, 12:12:25 AM »
Looks very much like GGI represents, at the very least, a cornerstone of many troubled teen programs.  Certain early experimental troubled teen program models who’s methodology is documented, such as Provo Experiment in Delinqency Rehabilitation, and The Silverlake Experiment, refer to GGI as being the adopted model. The Highfields experimenal treatment project for youthful offenders was the first of this kind, by Lloyd McCorkle, using Guided Group Interaction, which was first used to treat delinquent soldiers.


I don’t know exactly how many worms are in this can, but so far this is what I see in there.


For starters I’ll give my impression of  Lloyd McCorkle’s book, “The Highfields Story: An Experimental Treatment Project for Youthful Offenders. 1958”  Generally, I am struck by the familiar feel it has with descriptions of thought reform and human relations training, it really walks and quacks just like those things. So far I’ve not seen evidence that GGI was developed as a merger of those things other than within the evolution of program history itself.


For a prospective troubled teen program owner this book would be rewarding I think, however as a research piece into programs the bouquet leaves something to be desired. The scope of the work done emphasizes it’s own limitations when it says

“There are two kinds of rules at Highfields: general or formal rules, of which there are only two; and informal rules, which are innumerable…..  It may be that one of the employees decides to put a rule into effect in order to make his own work more efficient. If he feels it is of sufficient importance to require the approval of  the director, he will discuss it with him. Ordinarilly, however, this is not necessary.” P.60


In reference, the only two “general, formal” rules at Highfields were not being able to leave he property without adult accompaniment, and not permitted to engage in conversation with female patients at the state hospital where they work, a regiment of Highfields.


So the scope of this work is limited to the general model of the program, and describes little of the creative possibilities  in the “informal” category, in which the Provo Experiment may show more diversity.


Like just about any program, Highfields centers around regular group therapy sessions, 3-7 days a week and 2-4 hours at a time, these are the Guided Group Interaction sessions. Unfortunately, this is the area which is lacking in detail, understandably so, though, those are left to the professors of psychology and sociology.  And so the book describes the basic, uncreative, process of reform in GGI.


“Guided Group Interaction is based on psychological and sociological conceptions. But psychological and sociological terms are not used in the sessions.

Only two concepts are voiced by the boys. The first is that of “problem”. What is my problem? How did I become a problem to myself and others? How can I go about to solve my problem?

The second concept is that of progress. Have I made progress in solving my problem?  Am I making progress in solving my problem?” P.vii



And it is obvious in cases that GGI at Highfields makes use of rules that pit one another in a therapeutic game. A competition to progress and graduate from Highfields. The limited transcripts of the sessions were quite indicative of that, and there are quite a few other notable points in this book.

But like I said, can o worms, general impression.
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N.O.S.O.B.

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Re: Guided Group Interaction (GGI)
« Reply #4 on: October 09, 2011, 09:38:56 PM »
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Offline Awake

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Re: Guided Group Interaction (GGI)
« Reply #5 on: October 09, 2011, 11:21:38 PM »
Quote from: "N.O.S.O.B."
I think in the "Individual Rights and the Federal Role" COngressional report they talk about an adolescent program that used Guided Interaction Therapy in thier group therapy. "GIT"

I just got a Tavistock book Called "Reluctant Rebels; Re-education and Group Process in a Residential Community"  haven't read it yet but it's from 1959. They use McCorkle as a reference...got another about "reconditioned impulse, a direct approach to reshaping the persona"

I guess this is what they used to call brainwashing before the communist got into it...I don't know

Interesting piece of evidence. If you get a chance could you quote a brief reference of that.
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N.O.S.O.B.

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Re: Guided Group Interaction (GGI)
« Reply #6 on: October 10, 2011, 09:38:20 PM »
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N.O.S.O.B.

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Re: Guided Group Interaction (GGI)
« Reply #7 on: October 10, 2011, 09:51:26 PM »
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Offline Ursus

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Re: Guided Group Interaction (GGI)
« Reply #8 on: October 10, 2011, 11:38:04 PM »
Quote from: "Awake"
Looks very much like GGI represents, at the very least, a cornerstone of many troubled teen programs. Certain early experimental troubled teen program models who's methodology is documented, such as Provo Experiment in Delinqency Rehabilitation, and The Silverlake Experiment, refer to GGI as being the adopted model. The Highfields experimenal treatment project for youthful offenders was the first of this kind, by Lloyd McCorkle, using Guided Group Interaction, which was first used to treat delinquent soldiers.

I don't know exactly how many worms are in this can, but so far this is what I see in there.

For starters I'll give my impression of Lloyd McCorkle's book, "The Highfields Story: An Experimental Treatment Project for Youthful Offenders. 1958" Generally, I am struck by the familiar feel it has with descriptions of thought reform and human relations training, it really walks and quacks just like those things. So far I've not seen evidence that GGI was developed as a merger of those things other than within the evolution of program history itself...
There is no doubt in my mind that GGI evolved as a deliberate means of exploiting an already existent group mindset in place in certain groups by co-opting it and re-directing it to better serve the interests of those in the position of ultimate authority.

For several years, the earliest mention of GGI that I could find was in Lloyd McCorkle's permutation of group therapy which was custom tailored to serve the needs of the U.S. military in "rehabilitating" soldiers who had run afoul of the law (civilian and/or military). This is, I believe, where this methodology did acquire its descriptive name, "Guided Group Interaction."

But McCorkle had to have developed his ideas from somewhere, via some prior experience in working with people or with groups in purpose filled fashion, and I did come across some reference to that earlier this year. Apparently, he had been previously involved in "The Chicago Project," a community based endeavor which sought to re-direct and defuse the influence of juvenile gangs in Chicago in the mid 1930s.
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Offline Awake

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Re: Guided Group Interaction (GGI)
« Reply #9 on: November 04, 2011, 11:37:27 PM »
I came across this article that I think offers a good perspective on GGI as it relates to Juvenile Corrections. (I’d cut and past, but this article is being difficult.) GGI is offered here as an incorporation of various treatment strategies, not a focal point, which is good for connecting influences and motivations. Exercising manipulation and coercion is familiar to this take on juvenile correcions. several references, such as to Edgar Schein, are indicative  of that.  (I am personally interested in the reference to The National Association of Training Schools and Juvenile Agencies as possibly having a connection with the National training Laboritories or the National Educational Association, if anyone happens upon a connection there. Could be a lark.)

Anyways, obviously this shows GGI to be an important origin of the troubled teen industry.

This article, “Juvenile Treatment Strategies in Correctional Programs” was first presented in 1963.

http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream ... 100402.pdf

or indirect link
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/66867

.
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Offline glanes

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Re: Guided Group Interaction (GGI)
« Reply #10 on: November 28, 2011, 12:48:30 AM »
To provide GGI leaders and observers the tools necessary to conduct a positve GGI group.  This objective is accomplished by breaking GGI into four specific components and conducting role play situations relative to these four components.
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