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From facebook:
Human rights attorney Jessica Jackson, who survived kidnapping, a wilderness program, and Hyde School, speaks at the press conference to introduce federal bill #sicaa to Congress, surrounded by U.S. Senator Jeff Merkley, Paris Hilton, Sixto Martin Cancel of Think of Us, and Caroline Cole.

Jessica Jackson works on helping prisoners, helps Kim Kardashian with her legal journey, is a former mayor of Mill Valley, CA, is the CAO of Reform, Co-Founder of #cut50.

Video of speech on Facebook: (The part about forced exercise and being made to call herself "dirty" over and over again in front of the whole school is a direct reference to what she experienced at Hyde.)

Hyde School put her in their "alumni hall of honor" even though she dropped out of Hyde the day she turned 18 and (as she said in her speech) spent the next few years massively struggling with self-hate, drug addiction, and depression. It's pretty gross that Hyde seems to try to take credit for any of her success. In my opinion, Jessica succeeded IN SPITE OF the trauma she endured in the troubled teen industry, NOT BECAUSE Hyde provided her with some kind of life-changing help and support.

sicaa is the Stop Institutional Child Abuse Act, a federal bill.


Lieff Cabraser Heimann & Bernstein, LLP:
For some reason the original link that was up a couple weeks ago is down, but you can still contact them via their phone number or the contact form (, just put in the comment section that it's about Hyde School.

Hyde School Abuse Investigation
Lieff Cabraser is currently investigating claims of abuse and neglect at Hyde School, a behavior-modification boarding school in Bath, Maine. Founded in 1966, the school seeks to serve teenagers with emotional, familial, and/or behavioral problems. Unfortunately, Hyde School has faced numerous allegations of mistreatment over the years. When taken as a whole, these allegations create a frightening portrait of Hyde School as an unsafe institution where some of the country's most vulnerable children have been suffering horrific abuses for decades.

Survivors have shared disturbing reports of various forms of abuse, including emotional abuse, medical neglect, sexual abuse, forced manual labor, and punitive punishments. In some cases, former students have developed PTSD as a result of their time at Hyde.

In 1988, 14-year-old James Roman tragically died of a brain aneurysm on campus. Survivors have since questioned the treatment he may have received prior to his death, given Hyde's alleged culture of dismissing student complaints about physical ailments. In 2002, the parents of a former Hyde School student filed a lawsuit after their daughter was allegedly sexually assaulted by the then-Dean of Students, Larry Dubinsky. The case was settled for an undisclosed sum in 2003. According to messages posted on the online message board Fornits (a community website dedicated to exposing abuse in the "troubled teen" industry) through 2023, at least 160 former residents of Hyde have passed away since attending the program, with causes including drug overdoses, suicides, accidents, and more.

The Growing Rights of Abuse Survivors
Abuse survivors have the right to seek justice in civil court. The attorneys in our firm's Survivors' Rights practice group represent individuals nationwide in sexual abuse lawsuits against the institutions - schools, churches, hospitals, youth organizations, etc. - that harbored predators and failed to prevent or properly respond to incidents of sexual abuse. We have won multiple significant settlements over cases of sexual abuse including against the University of Southern California and at the University of Michigan. We have active cases of alleged sexual abuse on behalf of athletes in the NCAA, students at The Hotchkiss School in Connecticut, and children at Devereux Healthcare nationwide.

Abuse Survivor Lawyers at Lieff Cabraser
Lieff Cabraser represents survivors across the U.S. who have been victimized by sexual violence and sexual and other abuse. We treat every client with care, respect, and compassion as we bring our comprehensive legal skills forward on each case. We have a dedicated team of lawyers, nurse consultants, and paralegals experienced in working with and listening to survivors who work individually with every client in every case to see that justice is won.

If you were the victim of abuse unrelated to a larger institution, representation by our firm may not be the best option for your situation. We encourage you to consider representation by other attorneys, as well as support from resources like,,,, (another resource for male survivors),, and

Talk to us now - we can help you
If you or a loved one experienced abuse or neglect at Hyde School, we urge you to contact a lawyer at Lieff Cabraser today about your legal rights and potential recovery. You can call us toll-free at 1 800 541-7358 or use the secure form on this page. There is no charge or obligation for our review of your case, and any information you provide will be held in the strictest confidence.

Hyde Schools / Hyde School founder Joe Gauld died today
« on: March 31, 2023, 06:52:46 PM »
Joseph Warren Gauld
From Reddit:
Hyde School founder Joe Gauld died today (3/31/23)

He was like 94 or so. He was apparently on hospice. Hyde has been open for 57 years. His adult children Malcolm Gauld and his wife Laura Gauld, and all of the other siblings and their spouses, still own and run Hyde. The Bath, Maine campus is still open. Woodstock, Connecticut campus was open from 1996-2017. Enrollment currently at Bath is around 60-100 kids at a time.  They have one associated public charter day school still open in Brooklyn, but the Bronx charter changed their names and severed all ties to Hyde in summer 2022 due to misalignment in values.

Hyde Schools / Podcast interview of a Hyde School Woodstock Survivor
« on: January 01, 2022, 11:49:08 PM »
Listen to this podcast where Hyde Woodstock survivor Rachel talks about her time at the school with the host of On the Emmis podcast.

Apple Podcasts:


On the Emmis Podcast Linktree:

Podcast interview of a Hyde School Woodstock Survivor #breakingcodesilence #weareunsilenced #unsilenced #troubledteenindustry #hydeschoolcomplaints #hydeschoolreviews #hydeschoolabuse #hydebath #hydeboardingschool #hydewoodstock

An uncles testimony about his nieces stay at Redcliff Ascent:

This testimony was found on Reddit. All rights goes to the original author

During a nightmare divorce, my former brother and sister-in-law, signed off on having their basically well behaved, good student 13 and 15 year old daughters 'escorted' to Redcliff Ascent, a Wilderness Boot Camp in Utah. They had their virginity tested, were given 35 pound backpacks and set to walk in the Utah desert with a bunch of other kids, shoes taken away at night so they couldn't run away, peeing or pooping behind a bush and yelling out a number during the process, so they wouldn't run away, only unsweetened oatmeal for a week with a spoon of sugar as a treat on Sunday. Left alone in the desert to start a fire etc by themselves as part of achieving points.

It was because my fundie brother couldn't handle his daughters wearing short dresses, smoking cigarettes, being overweight and talking back to him on occasion (after he abandoned them for years with their drug addicted mother).

There were kids there who were anorexic, bulimic, overweight, depressed, bi-polar, mixed with some who were serious drug addicts, drug dealers, young sociopaths/rapists, kids dealing with a destructive personality disorders.

72 days they walked in the desert, my 13 year old niece losing 70 pounds.

On that 72nd day, a man turned up in the desert and told the kids that if they wanted a lovely hot shower, 3 meals a day, all they had to do was to agree to go to Hyde School. So the kids agreed.

Hyde was basically a mental institution and the kids were self-committing, giving permission to be committed without their knowing this. The law is that a person has to self commit to go to one of these mental institution 'schools', unless proven to be a danger to the community, when the committing can be done by the police. In the boot camp, if the kid did not say yes, they were left in the boot camp in the desert.

The fees were $3000 for Friendly Hands Escort Service to take them in handcuffs to the plane, $30,000 per child, per month. Hyde School cost $25,000 a year.

I visited my niece, both were put in two separate Hyde Schools, one in Maine and one in Connecticut. There were all kinds of abuses going on in the schools, teachers sleeping with students, teachers smoking pot with the students. Mostly it was the parents who were the mess and the kids trying to survive dysfunctional parents, as my nieces were.

Anyway, it basically ruined both their lives in terrible ways. I don't think they have recovered from that experience yet.

Redcliff Ascent was also the center of the first version of the reality show Brat Camp. In year 1999 there was a riot.

« on: December 16, 2021, 02:34:12 PM »

(Margaret T. Singer, Ph.D., Emeritus Prof. of Psychology, Univ. of CA,


In a thought reform program:
     the self concept is destabilized
     the group/leaders attack one's evaluation of self

SELF:     2 Elements in one's self-concept

     Peripheral Sense:  adequacy of public &  judgmental aspects, social
       status, role performance, conformity to social norms

     Central Sense of Self:  adequacy of intimate life, confidence in
       perception of reality, relations w/family, goals, sexual
       experiences, traumatic life events, religious beliefs, basic
       consciousness and emotional control

     When you attack a person's self-concept, aversive emotional
     arousal is created


     Especially thinking time
     Use techniques to get a person to think about:
          . the group
          . beliefs of the group
     as much of their waking time as possible

     Get people away from normal support systems for a period of time
     Provide models of behavior (cult members)
     Use in-group language
     Use of songs, games, stories the person is unfamiliar with or they are
       modified so that they're unfamiliar
     New people tend to want to be like others (acceptance, feeling part
       of a group)

     Manipulate:  social rewards
                  intellectual rewards
     REWARDS: support positive self-concept for conformity to new
              thought system
     PUNISHMENTS:   attack person's self-concept  for non-conformity

     Effects of behavioral modification (reward/punishment):
     1.   accept a particular world view
          2.   procedures for peer monitoring w/feedback to group
          3.   psychological, social & material sanctions to influence the
               target's behavior

          When there is control of external feedback, the group becomes the
          only source
     -- there are no reality checks

          BEHAVIORS REWARDED:  participation, conformity to ideas/behavior,
            zeal, personal changes

     BEHAVIORS PUNISHED:    criticalness, independent thinking,
       non-conformity to ideas/behavior

     PUNISHMENTS:   peer/group criticism, withdrawal of support/affection,
       isolation, negative feedback


          RESULTS:  confusion, disorientation, psychological disturbances

          Manipulate experience:
               altered states of consciousness (trance)
          Hypnosis: (see Ericksonian hypnosis)
               speaking patterns
               guided imagery
               pacing of voice to breathing patterns
               parables, stories with imbedded messages
               stop paying attention to distractions, focus
                    inwardly to what's going on inside you
               the use of one's voice to get people's attention
          Chanting, Meditation
          Teach thought-stopping techniques
          Work them up emotionally to a negative state:
               re-experience past painful events
               recall negative actions/sin in past life
          Then rescue them from negative emotion by giving them a new
               way to live

     Models will demonstrate new behavior
     Conformity: dress, language, behavior
     Using group language will eventually still the thinking mind

     No complaints from the floor
     Pyramid shaped operation with leader at the top
     Top leaders must maintain absolute control/authority
     Persons in charge must have verbal ways of never losing
     Anyone who questions is made to think there is something
          inherently wrong with them to even question
     Phobia induction:
          something bad will happen if you leave the group
          if you leave this group, you're leaving God
     Guilt manipulation


     You can't be thought reformed with full capacity, informed
     You don't know the agenda of the group at the beginning or the
          full content of the ideology

     Coordinated programs of coercive influence and behavior
     Use of pop psychology techniques found in sensitivity training
          and encounters groups

2nd Generation Thought Reform Systems  (attacks on central elements of
     1.   enlist recruit's cooperation, offer something they want (personal
          growth, salvation, etc.)
     2.   obtain psychological dominace by making the target's continuing
          relations contingent upon continuing membership
     3.   use seduction by developing bonds and encouraging targets to
          believe the group can provide something
     4.   develop dependency by direct social pressure to influence a
          decision that the group has special power or knowledge or
          can solve a problem; the people in the group are made to seem
          interested in what is best for the target -- then they "up
          the commitment level"
     5.   shift the target's social and emotional attachments to individuals
          who have already accepted high commitment and are conforming to
          the behavior


          decreasing the target's outside relationships
     6.   increase the CHANGES in the target's:
          personal friends/social life
                    stability of identity
                    emotional well-being

     7.   the community standards become the ONLY standards available for


CULT -  the political and power STRUCTURE of a group
CULTIC RELATIONSHIP - those relationships in which a person intentionally
induces others to become totally or nearly  totally dependent on him/her for
almost all major life decisions and inculcates in these followers a belief
that he has some special talent, gift or knowledge


Further references:
Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism.  Robert J. Lifton, M.D.,
University of N.C., Chapel Hill, 1989  Chapter 22

"Attacks on Peripheral versus Central Elements of Self and the Impact of
Thought Reforming Techniques" Richard Ofshe and Margaret T. Singer, The Cultic
Studies Journal, Vol. 3 #1, Spring/Summer 1986; American Family Foundation, P.O. Box
1232, Gracie Station, New York, NY 10028  (212) 533-0538

"The Utilization of Hypnotic Techniques in Religious Conversion" Jesse S.
Miller, The Cultic Studies Journal,Vol. 3 #2, Fall/Winter 1986

Recovery from Cults.  ed. Michael Langone, Ph.D., W.W. Norton, 1994

From Breaking Code Silence Facility Reporting Map:

Hyde School

Email [email protected]

616 High St, Bath, ME 04530
(207) 443-5584



REPORT HIPAA VIOLATION (violating patient health care privacy laws)

REPORT A THERAPIST (although Hyde has none that directly work at the school)

REPORT A PSYCHOLOGIST (although Hyde has none that directly work at the school)

REPORT A SOCIAL WORKER (Hyde sometimes has one social worker on staff)
ME Professional Regulation:
National Association of Social Workers:

REPORT A NURSE (Hyde usually has an RN on staff to give out meds)

REPORT A DOCTOR (although Hyde has none that directly work at the school)

For comments, additions, and/or feedback or just generally have questions about reporting, please email [email protected]

Elan School / The Last Stop, on youtube
« on: December 14, 2021, 03:19:47 PM »
The Last Stop, on YouTube. Also on Amazon Prime.

Hyde Schools / "Joe Gauld still loose?" Maine Times Reader response 1992
« on: December 08, 2021, 02:58:54 PM »
Reader response/Letters to the Editor, Maine Times 1992

Joe Gauld still loose?

I was interested to read Diane L Potter's letter. I hadn't seen the article she was referring to and was very surprised to find that Joe Gauld is not in an institution. As the father of a student at Hyde School in the mid-80s, I have an insider's perspective. Ms. Potter's letter covers some very valid points but she doesn't know the half of it!

When my wife first checked out Hyde school Timothy Wilson was in charge but when we brought our daughter there to start school Mr. Wilson was gone and Joe Gauld was in full charge. What a difference!

Joe claims the school is not for kids with behavior problems, yet most of the students I've seen were there in a desperation situation. The next step for most of them was either running away from home or reform school or jail. That is the only reason the parents and students put up with what they did. One of Joe's fun little games is what he calls a "Family Learning Center." Every student and his or her parents is required to attend one of these every year. This is a group consisting of about 10 students and their families and starts Thursday afternoon and runs through Sunday night Friday, Saturday and Sunday are filled with about 14 to 16 hours of meetings per day. Joe tries to get all parents to stay on campus during this marathon, I guess for even more psychological control. Joe says these are learning sessions but they seem like pure brainwashing to me. From the moment a parent enters the campus for one of these sessions, Joe tries to exercise total control over everything that parent does or thinks. I think parents attend these sessions and debase themselves only because they are so desperate to keep their children out of jail or the street. I saw no real benefit to these marathon sessions.

I have had experience with a number of other schools and various institutions and I've never seen as bad vandalism as I have at Hyde School. One time I was there and saw the boys bathroom in the common building. Somebody had totally trashed it There was rolls of toilet paper in each toilet, wet toilet paper rolls over the floor, and water everywhere. Somebody was unhappy! If Joe and the school really had any respect at all for them I don't think the students would react so badly. In talking to many of the students and parents privately, they would admit they were just "playing the game" so they could stay there. In school meetings they would totally debase themselves to please Joe or the staff. They would say and do anything (and also keep quiet about obvious injustice). There seems to be no respect anywhere at the school from anybody toward anybody.

In two years' association with that school I have seen Joe give his rambling two or three hour talk about the school's founding and his own brilliance so many times it is unbelievable. No matter what he was supposed to be talking about or how short his remarks were supposed to be, he would quickly lapse into that same, rambling, pointless story about his own greatness and the founding of Hyde and how his son Malcolm had stolen a watch when he young and on and on and on.

In our first year there, Joe seemed to have much lacking and be making an extremely poor effort at what he was supposedly doing but he was in control and seemed functional. The second year Joe seemed to be almost all the way around the bend. Malcolm was openly being groomed to fill his shoes and I seriously thought Joe would be institutionalized within a year or two. I feel so sorry for any parents and students there. I would strongly, and in all seriousness, urge all parents, school faculties, etc. to investigate this man very thoroughly before having anything to do with him. Talk to former students, parents, faculty members, etc.

Otaries E. Provonchee Unionwas

Maine Times 1992-09-04

Hyde School Survivors released 69 police reports from Hyde Bath from 2017-2021. There's a kid begging police to be taken to jail, various assaults, and rape. Apparently 11 cases were not included because they still have open investigations.

It's the first link in the link tree:

Confessed Queens killer insulted, then assaulted his female victims on both coasts

JUL 28, 2018 AT 12:55 PM

Danueal Drayton (l.) is facing murder charges for strangling 29-year-old Samantha Stewart (r.) inside her apartment in Springfield Gardens on July 17. (NYPD)

A misogynist murder suspect who confessed to seven slayings denounced his female victims as ?b----es? after being arrested for a brutal bicoastal rampage, a police source said Saturday.

Danueal Drayton, after killing a Queens woman inside her home, used the victim?s stolen credit card to fly cross-country ? where he took a West Hollywood woman hostage and raped her before his Monday arrest by the NYPD, according to the source.

The cold-blooded criminal also ordered a meal from Uber eats and did some shopping with the credit card after leaving Samantha Stewart?s battered body in a pool of blood for her brother and father to find inside her Springfield Gardens apartment.

Drayton, 27, made dehumanizing comments to cops about the unlucky-in-love women who swiped right on a Tinder profile where the sadistic suspect looked more like a charming college student than an ex-con, according to a

While Drayton was wanted for murder in the July 17 strangling of Stewart, 29, police were trying to determine if he actually committed any of the other half-dozen killings that he admitted to following his arrest.

One of the slayings occurred five months ago, where a Bronx father of three died after being assaulted on the street by two men. A homeless man was initially arrested for the homicide, but released on his own recognizance ? even though police say he is charged with murder ? and is due back in court in October.

Police have yet to charge anyone else with the deadly attack.

Drayton identified a man of Indian descent living in Connecticut as one of his two murder victims in that state, the source said. The other killings were supposedly in Suffolk County, California and in either Queens or Nassau County.

Drayton remained behind bars on $1.25 million bail in California, where he fled on a one-way plane ticket after the Stewart killing. Once on the ground, he arranged a date with a local woman who was then taken captive and raped inside her apartment.

The NYPD tracked the suspect cross-country and arrested him at the victim?s home, possibly saving her life.

Though Drayton deleted his Tinder account, cops hope a subpoena will allow them to recover its data and get a better idea of the suspect?s deadly dating habits, the source said. Cops were also checking other dating sites ? including Plenty of Fish ? to locate additional potential victims of the accused sexual predator.

Drayton was a New York City kid adopted by a Connecticut couple who reportedly took in 10 foster kids over 16 years at their suburban home. He was known as Dan on the campus of the Hyde School in Bath, Maine, where he arrived in the fall of 2009 with an eye on joining the football team. A phone message left for his adoptive parents Saturday was not returned.

Drayton, whose rap sheet dates to 2011, was freed without bail by a Nassau County judge just 12 days before the Stewart murder, following an arrest for choking his girlfriend as the couple fought inside a Long Island park.

He was also accused in the June 17 rape of a 23-year-old woman who spotted Drayton?s Tinder profile. Their date ended with Drayton choking her unconscious and sexually assaulting her, cops said.

Analysis: Is Joe Gauld's educational philosophy what the world needs?

Remember some years ago a movement called Buchmanism: a lot of people getting together in a room and confessing their sins of omission and commission - a kind of alcoholics anonymous on a grape juice jag? The whole thing got retitled Moral Rearmament (MRA) and a tennis player named Bunny Austin made headlines by advocating world changing through life changing, the slogan of Frank Buchman himself.

Well, something of this kind is now used as part of a system of growth through courage which has been put together by a man named Joe Gauld, headmaster of the Hyde School in Bath, an institution not primarily interested in studies but in a system which Gauld says builds character and develops each student's "unique potential."

Gauld, according to his own account, began Hyde School with students who had very little academic talent and many behavioral problems. At that time he introduced a series of procedures which survive today though Hyde is now on its feet.

One of the school's methods of achieving the results they claim consists of class meetings - seminars they call them, though there is nothing remotely academic about the assemblies - at which students and adults alike describe and discuss their shortcomings. I attended a Junior Class seminar.
When the entire class and four or five faculty members were assembled, the faculty leader nodded to one student, who began a semi-articulate account of his sins: failure to relate to people, immaturity, lack of the qualities (unspecified) required of a senior at Hyde.

"I can't see you as a Hyde senior next year," one faculty member remarked, apparently intending his failure of vision to be a reproof. The boy's classmates echoed the statement, and avowed that they had seen signs of the shortcomings the young man had confessed to, though specifics were lacking:

"I feel, you know, that you've been different, you know; that you haven't, you know, quite..."

A girl identified as the accused's sister chimed in: "That's it; you don't treat me as a person; you don't seem to even notice me, and at home I feel... " At this point her tears made her totally inarticulate.

The young man now, with much verbal agony, acknowledged the logic of the several charges made against him and declared himself reformed, aware of his inadequacies, and firm in his resolve to amend his life. He was let off the hook.

After some other confessions in which almost identical "problems" were discussed in almost identical language, attention centered on a boy with a delicate and rather frightened face.

He too confessed to immaturity, and was promptly reminded by his classmates of other faults: stubbornness, excessive intellectuality - "You think too much," they told him - and reticence - "You don't relate to others," was their way of phrasing it.

Many voices from around the room joined in the chorus, faculty as well as students; the young man leaned forward and his eyes glistened perceptibly even behind his glasses. He had little to say of or for himself, and his taciturnity seemed to his accusers one more sign of intransigence.

Suddenly a faculty wife turned on him and said, "Aren't you a Jew?"

Two other students took up this new tack, one saying: "That's it; it's his background he hasn't learned to cope with. He should be a sophomore; he's not mature enough to be a Hyde senior next year."

Presently, despite the young man's protestations that he did not want to be put back to the sophomore class, a vote was suggested, a forest of hands was raised, and the boy was no longer a junior. "How do you feel now?" asked the faculty leader.

The student could manage no reply. He got up, walked from the room, and attempted to shut the sliding door behind him; it stuck.

John Henry Martin, chairman of the National Panel on High Schools and Adolescent Education, in a letter about Hyde School, wrote that a class meeting of the kind I witnessed "could become cruelly abusive of individuals or turn into a pseudo religious public confessional. In fact," his letter, written in 1972, continued, "it is neither." Martin did not say whether he had a chance to talk individually, as I did, with a student who had been subjected to this kind of treatment

After the meeting broke up, I asked the faculty member who had been in charge whether the school had a consulting psychiatrist or if any faculty member present had had psychiatric or psychological training. He said no; that years of working with students were the best guide and provided the knowhow to manipulate the emotions of youngsters. Later I was told that the school had indeed consulted psychiatrists, though just how or in what capacity was not divulged.

During the meeting, several references were made to the "Junior Thing," a phrase which meant something to everyone present except me. I asked what it was.

It seems that in the course of last year the entire Junior Class staged a rebellion because, as one of them put it, they wanted to say the hell with the whole thing. Whether this is an intermediate stage in the process of character development was not explained. What happened was this.

In the middle of one night the juniors all got up, and lured from their beds, by false stories, the Leadership School (a small group of seniors chosen for responsibility), the juniors bound them, and locked them up. Then they proceeded to defy the authority not only of the seniors but of the faculty as well.

The Director of Hyde School, Edward Legg, unaccustomed to coping with so much unique potential all at once, suspended the entire Junior Class, instituted what the kids referred to as martial law, dispatched the juniors to their rooms in disgrace, and then one by one readmitted them to the school - when they had repudiated their behavior and recommitted themselves to conformity. This was the group that sat in judgment on one of their classmates and demoted him for immaturity.

Group therapy is, of course, not new; it has been used in a variety of ways besides Moral Rearmament; for seriously disturbed teen-agers, and for prisoners.

A few weeks ago a man from a prison where such therapy is practiced was interviewed on TV:
"You learn how to judge what they think is right and what they think is wrong," he said, "and you play right along with them." Confessions and commitments are relatively easy to obtain where there is the constant threat of martial law, even the kind of martial law that a school can impose.

Class seminars and martial law are not the only methods of character instruction at Hyde School.
One girl had to shovel a pile of sand to a spot a few feet away and then shovel it back again. Other students deemed potentially unique are persuaded to reform and conform by digging ditches; one young man I saw undergoing this form of development had dug himself in up to his chest.

Tough treatment is the rule at Hyde. The headmaster, who writes a weekly newspaper column, described in one of his articles a Russian schoolmaster, Makarenko, whose struggle "is an inspiration for Hyde School's goal of changing American education." The article goes on to tell how the Russian struck a student, not once but three times, knocking the boy against a stove and then picking him up and hitting him again until the young man whimpered. "Makarenko, Gauld writes, "had a commitment to help these kids, but he faced a hostile educational bureaucracy whose naive let-the-child-express-himself philosophy would constantly harass his efforts." At Hyde there is a certain amount of slapping, and kids get thrown into ponds, but I did not see or hear anything worse than a girl thrown into a pond by some other students. As she fought and kicked and shrieked, four students took her by the arms and legs, swung her out over the water, and dropped her in.

"I'm safe with you," the student I was talking with told me; "they won't grab me here." Then he added, "I'd fight them. I'm agile; I got away by jumping a fence."

"I hadn't cried for nine years before I came to Hyde," one student said. "I'm worried about next year (it was late May when we talked together) but I'll make it. I'm going to work hard at my wrestling."

So much for the Makarenko ideal. As for the Russian's "hostile educational bureaucracy." the leaders of Hyde School feel the same kind of antipathy toward American educators, or as the headmaster calls them, "the educational mafia," which he holds responsible for the ''other system," that is, everything un-Hyde. Simplification is one of the headmaster's talents, allowing him to lump together the whole of American education - public day schools, private boarding schools, girls' seminaries, co-education on the Putney model, free schools, open classroom schools, Montessori schools - in a single category, the "other system."

"Our system," Gauld writes, "will necessarily transform child development today into a new system." And again, "We cannot effect this change through the present system of education; It has no philosophy ..." Nevertheless, Gauld is working hard to spread his gospel through pilot projects modeled on Hyde in places as far removed as Illinois, Long Island, New York, and Westbrook, Maine.

Westbrook Superintendent Harold Hickey, who was asked by Commissioner Carroll McGary to look at Hyde, said, "I'm willing to look and talk but I've got a lot of questions to ask. Character building is fine, commitment is fine, but we've all been doing it for years."

Character building is fine if fine character is what you build. How does anybody know?
If a teenager is publicly humiliated, does this build his character? Does it build the character of other students who are encouraged to take part in such a show?

A friend of mine, an Army doctor who wanted to be sent overseas, went to parachute jump school. He told me that any man who refused to bail out of the plane was made to stand in the middle of the parade ground while the entire company marched past. As they came up to him, each man would turn and say, "You dirty yellow coward."

The products of such a school must be disciplined, conformist, trained to perform a particular (usually a distasteful) task with efficiency and dispatch. Such training is not a matter of building character but of influencing behavior. There is certainly a considerable effect upon a person's character but whether this effect is coarsening or humanizing depends on factors which the training does not take into account.

All that is required of a parachute trooper at the critical moment when his behavior matters is not character but a gut feeling; that's all that is required of a trained dog, and, interestingly enough, Hyde School's director uses an analogy of training dogs to describe part of the process at Hyde. When you ask Hyde School's leaders to explain the core of their philosophy, they say, "It's a gut feeling."

I found myself very much interested in Hyde School's philosophy and methods, particularly because, through Commissioner McGary's influence, there seemed a possibility that they might be adapted for use in public schools here in Maine. Consequently, I looked forward to my interview with Joe Gauld; like Harold Hickey, I had a lot of questions to ask.

It isn't easy to ask Joe Gauld questions. He boasts that he reads very little and learns more easily from people than from the printed page, so that questions about educational theory get short answers. Besides, he is almost aggressively anti-intellectual. "Adults are products of an educational system that only plugs them into intellectual solutions," he retorts. In the quintet of qualities to which Hyde is committed ("Why did you pick those five?" I asked; "wouldn't another five have done as well?" "Sure," answered Director Legg) the only remotely intellectual quality is curiosity.

It's also difficult to ask Gauld questions because he is himself terribly sensitive to criticism - curious in a school where open criticism openly arrived at is the ideal for which the students must undergo emotional and verbal agonies at regulated intervals. And, finally, it's difficult to ask him questions because he thinks with the pit of his stomach. You have to feel it, he says; you have to believe. Questions to him mean doubts; doubts mean unbelief; and there is no room and no hospitality at Hyde for the unbeliever.

What I wanted to ask Gauld was what he meant by a phrase he uses constantly in writing about his methods: "unique potential." "Every human being is endowed with a unique potential. The purpose of life comes alive in its development." (from "An Operational Philosophy of Hyde School").

"In education, any practice of parent, teacher, school, community, or even the individual himself (no one has the right to abuse to potential) should ultimately be measured by the sacredness of unique potential." (from The Hyde School National Commitment, October 15,1973).

I was particularly puzzled because in all I had seen and read of Hyde there seemed to be a contradiction: on the one hand, they believed in and were prepared to use force to exact conformity on the part of every student; on the other, they professed to believe in "unique potential," which seemed to mean individual talent; and to want to discover and develop in each student this quality.

When I pressed Gauld on the point, he clammed up; then suddenly he leaped to his feet and shouted to the school's director, Ed Legg, "I don't want this man to write an article about the school. 1 don't want him to talk to any more students or any more faculty members." And he bolted from the room.

With the headmaster gone, I tried my question on Director Legg: "What do you mean by 'unique potential?'"
"It's a gut feeling," said Legg.

There are at Hyde all the regular school activities of classes and sports and extracurricular activities, but almost everywhere the system obtrudes itself. It is not the quiet, well-oiled machinery that functions almost imperceptibly at most established preparatory schools; there's a self-consciousness to much of what the students should do naturally; there's a great eagerness to talk, and talk to a stranger - each time I went there I had to break away because the kids wanted to go on talking at me. And the headmaster himself talks incessantly about Hyde, answering questions that nobody has asked about his experience, his background, his work.

What I missed most in the school was a good, honest, open laugh. Eager, intense, nice young people they were, as all young people are. But they didn't see that their gut feelings and their unique potential and their Buchmanite maunderings were comical, and the faculty didn't understand it either. They didn't see that they themselves and the world around them are funny. Worst of all, they didn't see that the whole serious business can be fun.

by J.B. Satterthwaite

Photography for Joe Gauld stories by Tom Jones

Maine Times  1974-08-02: Vol 6 Iss 44

Strong pushback from a parent when Hyde School tried to take over Gardiner Area High School in 1992:
Letter to the editor, Maine Times 1992-08-14:

It's time that I speak out about my reservations on the Gardiner-Hyde Project at Gardiner High School. Like many parents, my husband and I were at first curious, then more interested as we heard some things that we would like to see happen at the high school, and finally completely turned off.

Joe Gauld (the founder of the private Hyde School in Bath, who will implement his educational philosophy in the high school) is a manipulator par excellence. In large group meetings he deftly skirts around questions without completely answering them. I believe there is reason for our school board to look more closely into allegations of inappropriate and humiliating disciplines that have been made against the Hyde School in the past

Last winter the school board hesitated on accepting the program at Gardiner on a trial basis until they received more information. Gauld demanded he be given "carte blanche" or he would drop everything. The board caved in to his demands. I urge them to be stronger in the future and to be vigilant over the goings on of the Gardiner- Hyde Program.

Many of the Gardiner students who spoke with Hyde students were disturbed by the discipline program known as "my brother's keeper." Hyde students told them that students who knew that another student had broken a rule and did not tell were "shunned" for a certain period of time. The other students were not to acknowledge them in any way. I strongly disagree with this type of punishment or any other that uses humiliation. I asked Gauld in a meeting if this were indeed one of their forms of discipline. He said, "I hadn't heard that," and quickly turned to another hand that was raised.

Recently a student who did not wish to take part in an activity was made to do 100 pushups instead. What, I ask you, does that teach our children? It seems to me that the Hyde people deal with all students the same way. In his meetings with parents, Gauld always described students who could get good grades but had arrogant attitudes. His methods seem to have been borrowed from the Marines and could be harmful to fragile students who lack self-esteem.

The Gardiner-Hyde Program is taking place. From here on in. I would like the participants to win over advocates by example, not by the revivalist tone of many of the presentations. We have been promised that the rest of the student body would not be left out in any way and yet, on Step-up Day when eighth graders go to the high school for a tour of the building, only Gardiner-Hyde students conducted the welcoming tour.

Many teachers who first looked into the Hyde Program came away believing that there were aspects of this program that sounded worthwhile but other parts that were either undesirable or unworkable. Unfortunately, most staff members have not spoken out as forcefully as they might have out of fear for their jobs. There was never a forum to discuss whether or not the plan would be a go, only how to implement it I personally resent any implication that parents or teachers who do not support the Gardiner-Hyde Project are against change. That is a red herring and a way to silence dissent Other school districts have taken a broader look at goals for their schools.

Research shows that the school-with in-a-school concept does not work. Portland High School tried such a project a few years ago and it failed. The proponents of school-within-a- school projects usually believe that, little by little, others will come over to their side. In actuality, resentment grows, and the plan dies. According to the Kennebec Journal coverage of the Gardiner-Hyde Project, there are 150 students slated to start the project off in the fall. The mother of a student who is in the program recently told me there are 88. Who is telling the truth?

Gardiner Area High School, like most high schools today, needs to reassess where if s going in this decade. We need to help students, especially those in the "general" course programs, focus on their career goals. We need to do more to make students feel a part of the school and take responsibility for themselves. Proponents of the Gardiner-Hyde program say that is exactly what they are doing. I don't agree. Students currently participating in a summer program at Hyde must clean latrines and, if they don't perform this duty well enough, they are up at 5:30 for calisthenics. Having to sing solo in front of all your peers at breakfast does not impress me. The Hyde School teaches conformity and submission. As a reporter observed in Maine Times (8/2/74). "I was particularly puzzled because in all I had seen and read of Hyde there seemed to be a contradiction: on the one hand they believed in and were prepared to use force to exact conformity on the part of every student, on the other, they professed to believe in 'unique potential'".

The Hyde people have done one thing very well They have brought together parents who are scared and don't know what to do next with their adolescents. They have listened to these people instead of simply calling them in when the student has misbehaved and allowing them to feel like failures as parents. It is obvious that parents of adolescents who lead busy lives trying to hold down careers and juggle family responsibilities need to come together and talk. But the Hyde Program says. Trust us with your kids. If you are good parents, you will buy this whole program hook, line and sinker." Several parents I've met feel somewhat uneasy with some of the aspects of the program. I urge them to listen to their children and trust their own instincts.

As a guidance counselor, my goal has always been to help students believe in themselves and increase their self-esteem. Self-esteem is something reasonable people can observe in others by looking at degrees of assertiveness, ability to take risks, etc. Joe Gauld and Co. talk about character. Character is much more subjective and is far more value-laden. I can say someone has high self-esteem and yet not necessarily share their values. The people I judge to be of excellent character will probably be those who agree with me on political and social issues, spiritual belief, etc. What is character and how does the Hyde School define it? In the same Maine Times article, Gauld was asked how he determined his five qualities of character, i.e. courage, integrity, concern for others, curiosity and leadership and wouldn't another five have done as well? Gauld answered, "Sure."

Recently I came across several articles in the Maine Times written in the 70s and 80s about Gauld and the Hyde School. As I read them, I saw the same man I had seen this spring touting his Hyde program, spouting the same superficial philosophy, and looking for communities from Maine to Illinois to buy his program. It didn'
t appear that any school district had ever done anything more than express an interest before rejecting Joe and his all or nothing attitude.

There is no doubt that Joe Gauld today is the same fellow who operated Hyde School in 1974. One of his former teachers stated in the same article, "Joe has to dominate everyone. His approach is to find out a person's weakness. He grabs onto that, and no matter what type of progress a student makes, Joe always goes back to that weakness. He strips a person psychologically and gains control over them. Then he manipulates them to his values."

I won't describe all the physical forms of punishment Joe Gauld has considered to make kids "tough" or the descriptions of painful self-criticism seminars in which students are belittled by their peers until they are reduced to tears, but anyone can read these articles on microfiche at the Maine State Library or contact me for a copy.

I urge any community members to contact me who would like to work together to support our teachers, create a learning environment that emphasizes strengths and not weaknesses, and set goals for our schools that can help students become contributing members of the workplace.

Diane Potter, Gardiner ME


Maine Times - The Selling of Hyde
Article link:

"Hyde is the model of a new education system. Keep that in mind and accept that it is so. Hyde is already effectively confronting segments of the present system of educating and raising kids in this country. Accept that fact. Hyde is presenting to families in America a vision of the type of relationships that should exist in families. Most of us accept this already."

ON A COLD January night last winter, Joe Gauld, the ebullient, founder of Hyde School, invited to dinner a dozen or so Bath community leaders. He wanted to know what really had poured the city on Hyde, an experimental prop school whose towering goal is to emancipate the public school system.

As it turned out, Gauld did most of the talking . . . and shouting and name-calling. Before the four-hour encounter was over; he mode a proposition to the group: school board members, representatives of the city Council and influential citizens.

Gauld said he wanted to take over the Bath public schools and the entire community to use as an innovative educational laboratory.

"We would be a workshop for the nation," said Sally Haggett, chairwoman of the Bath school board: "From birth to death everyone - would be integrated into a unified educational system with the Hyde philosophy of character building to reach one's 'unique potential' as the basis."   

Hyde then would be able to achieve its deserved national recognition for finding the way to educate people, Gauld suggested. The city of Bath would gain too, as Hyde headmaster Ed Legg later elaborated.

Both could become a leading educational, cultural, commercial and industrial center. The finest, most committed teachers would flock there, as well as top people from all professions, Legg said. His dream for Bath seemed to have no bounds. He envisioned property values and personal income going up, unemployment and juvenile crime dropping and school athletic teams that would be the best. (Athletics is as important at Hyde as academics, and all students are required to participate).

Legg also said that if Hyde and the community joined hands, he could see them together solving growing social problems, like wife beating and alcoholism.

Gauld told the city leaders there could be no compromise; either they were with him and Legg, his protege or they were against him. If the city rejected Hyde's plan, Gauld and Legg threatened to cut off their students' community work with elementary school-students and focus Hyde's energy on another, more appreciative city.

The city leaders rejected Hyde's offer. Haggett said she wasn't even startled by the proposal because Hyde has always been open "about wanting to change the world." In retaliation, Legg suspended Hyde students' work with Fisher Elementary School and Elmhurst, a state home for children. (The programs were reinstated by Hyde trustees.)

Relations between Hyde and community lenders were basically broken off. The confrontation was inevitable, Haggett believes. "Hyde wants to be big nationally. Joe Gauld knows the only way Hyde can be sold to the nation is to show that it has worked in a community like this," she said. "We are a real thorn in their side because they have not been able to take us over."

Haggett said that Hyde has some positive approaches to education that can work in the public school setting, but because Gauld and Legg come on like steamrollers, people are wary of them. "Some citizens, Haggett included, view Hyde as a cult seeking salvation of a person's spirit and mind. "Like any religion, they are zealous and are so convinced they are right they have to proselytize."

A former Hyde teacher, who quit his job lost year, said that "Hyde attracts the religious-oriented types. The kind of dedication one gets into is almost like any ministry, and your life is not your own at the end, Hyde is always shooting for your conversion," said the teacher.

Hyde was true to its word in seeking out another community to take over Portland. Hyde is getting comfortably entrenched in Reiche School, an elementary school of mostly low-income students, and Legg said that he expects to work out cooperative programs with the city junior and senior high schools.

"Portland is better for us. It's urban and will give us more recognition," said Legg. "But we gave Bath the first crack."

However, Legg still hasn't given up on Both. In a defiant move, Legg applied for superintendent of schools. He recently accused the school board of deliberately snubbing him because they didn't send him an acknowledgement of his. application. Their inaction showed "spite, ego and sloppy management," he said in a letter to school board chairwoman Haggett.

About the same time Hyde got the rebuff from Bath, it also got disappointing news from the federal Job Corps.

Last January, the Job Corps signed a $73,383 contract with Hyde to try out the Hyde leadership und training program on Job Corps trainees. The first phase of the three-phase program was for Hyde to tour five Job Corps centers with their musical-historical drama, America's Spirit.

Actress Ruth Warrick, a member of the National Endowment for the Arts and Humanities, had seen an America's Spirit production in New York and "thought the arts would be the way to crack the tough cover the (Job Corps) kids have." Hyde's mission was to show Job Corps trainees, mostly young dropouts-from the inner cities, how they could build up their self-confidence and self-motivation and be more desirable in the job market.

At the time of the signing of the contract Gauld had said, "The door is opening for Hyde . . . this could prove to be a new beginning for American education. The ghetto may very well be the Valley Forge of the educational system."

"We are committed people. People we are in contact with say we are a breath of fresh air to them." Ed Legg

But when the project fell through, Legg announced that it was Hyde rejecting the Job Corps rather than the other way around as the Job Corps says. He said he wasn't interested in the Job Corps because it wasn't interested in character building. The government just wanted a nice trainee recruitment gimmick, he said.

There is no doubt that the failure of Hyde to move in on the Bath public schools and the Job Corps were significant setbacks. But already Legg is viewing them as learning lessons, rather than rejections of Hyde's philosophy of education.

And if one vehicle for Hyde runs out of gas, Gauld and Legg find another one. They are never without plans for achieving their "national commitment" goals, which simply is to become the national model for education.

"You've got to credit Hyde," said Audrey Alexander, principal of Fisher Elementary School across the street from Hyde. "They are constantly open and searching to see what's the best vehicle for them to reach their goals. And they are spreading their ideas."

Here are some of the major developments at Hyde over the last three years that have changed the coed boarding school from a kind of rigorous military boot camp filled with problem teenagers to a "new leadership school of achievers" with more affluent parents.

-Hyde has developed regional groups across the country but primarily in the East, and parents and Hyde alumni are working hard to convert their friends and neighbors to the Hyde way.

-Ultimately, the regional groups' aim is to establish their own Family Learning centers, such as the one on the Bath campus. The center 'is where parents learn what steps they can take to further their growth as individuals and as parents." according to a Hyde admissions brochure. Parents use sensitivity training in group sessions and give each other grades on growth, partially based on this level of financial commitment.

-Joe Gauld is constantly traveling across the country, using national television and newspapers to sell Hyde. He is coming out this year with a book about Hyde's educational experience (to be published by Bantam Books). Gauld hopes it will be popular enough to sell in grocery stores, where it would reach a mass market.

-They Gauld and Legg are establishing relationships with important people in the arts and political circles, such as Broadway producer Ted Mann and his wife, opera singer Patricia Brooks, and Mimi Lee, wife of the acting governor of Maryland. Mann has given over his Circle-In-The-Square Theater to Hyde's America's Spirit production several times. His wife has raised $210 for Hyde with a thrift sale and cleared $3,000 for Hyde with a benefit recital in Alice Tully Hall. Mimi Lee has opened the governor's mansion in Annapolis to America's Spirit and introduced Hyde people to her and the governor's social and political friends. Both Mann and Lee have or had children at Hyde. (Lee said her household is divided over 'the goodness' of Hyde, with one son and her husband believing there are 'fanatics' and 'demented' to another son and daughter who think 'Hyde can do no wrong.' Mimi Lee said she's aware of their good and bad points.)

-And not the least of Hyde's plan is America's Spirit. Hyde's most widely appealing self-promotional enterprise.

Continued in reply..

Maine Times - Joe Gauld Presents His Educational Philosophy to the World
Original: and here

Joe Gauld promotes Bath's Hyde School and its character development program with the zeal of a salesman who has just conceived a better mousetrap.

He exudes an evangelical fervor in his nonstop effort to convince Maine's educational leaders that Hyde, a grades 9-12 prep school, is the new model for what education can, and should be.

Gauld, the founder, headmaster and spiritual leader of Hyde, believes that building a young person's character to cope successfully with a tumultuous world is every school's primary calling. Preparing a student for college admission should be almost incidental.

"Hyde School was founded on a conviction that education must promote among young people a realization of their own potentialities and a respect for themselves as individuals," Gauld says, quoting from the school catalog.

"We feel the growing impersonal trend in education defeats an appreciation of one's self and discourages the type of rugged individual who built this country. The principles on which this school is founded maintain that the qualities of self-confidence, self- discipline and perspective are more important to youth than they have ever [been] before."

It's not unusual for a prep school to espouse character-building. The trustees and parents expect that. But for the most part, students are forced to concentrate on academic preparedness and worry about their character later, Gauld says. Not at Hyde.

Hyde students, parents and faculty are required to make a commitment to the school motto: "COURAGE to meet a challenge; CURIOSITY about life and learning; active CONCERN for others; INTEGRITY of one's own spirit; and the capacity for responsible LEADERSHIP."

Gauld has seen his system work for eight years with "incorrigible" teenagers in trouble with the law as well as underachievers who have never tuned into themselves.

The reason it works at Hyde and should be incorporated into the national school system, Gauld says, is that he's devised a way to convince students they have a "unique potential" and helps them find ways of developing it.

But breaking down barriers to reach a student's potential is difficult, and Hyde uses unconventional and controversial methods of doing it.

Gauld acknowledges that students are put into a wringer emotionally and sometimes physically so they can begin to reach themselves and develop their character.   

Ed Legg, director of Hyde, pointed out that anyone who is accepted at the school must go to the summer session, which he likened to a military boot camp, in order to prepare for life at Hyde.

"My wife says it's like a lot of little puppies piddling on the floor with us rubbing their noses in it. But at the end of the eight weeks, you can see how they're changing, and we have a community going," he said.

Gauld explained further that students are sometimes slapped, publicly paddled, forced to attend regular self-criticism seminars, and in one case, the faculty dunked a girl student in the Duck Pond. If a student really performs poorly, he or she is compelled to live alone and is kicked out of class.

Worse for some students is the prohibition against smoking, drinking and drugs. Tattle-telling is encouraged, and offenders of the rules (drawn up by students and teachers) may have their hair cut Marine recruit style or may be put on a work detail.

Even if a student is making great strides in character building but is overweight, getting through at Hyde can be a battle. Husky or fat students eat at a special diet table, and if they fall to lose the prescribed amount of weight for that week, they flunk their schoolwork for that period.

While these may seem extreme measures to some people, Gauld is self-assured they are necessary.

"The number one test is will a particular rule wash with the kid," he said in an interview at Hyde.

"Some kids would really be insulted if you hit them. But to others, it might be proof you will go to any length to honor your commitment to them.

"I first slapped a student five years ago after arriving at my own point of confidence to do it," Gauld said.

Jenny Rose, a 15-year-old from Lexington, Mass., who will be a sophomore this fall, said she and a teacher had "a little physical combat" when she went to Hyde for an interview prior to enrollment.

"It shocked me, but it wasn't frightening," Jenny said. "It was what I needed.

"All my other teachers had let me get away with things, but not at Hyde. They really showed that they cared by not being afraid to let us hate them until we could take responsibility for ourselves and our friends," she said.

Jenny is satisfied that the Hyde method works for her. She counts herself among the growing number of Hyde students who feel they were plucked just in the nick of time from an outdated educational system that "turns out robots and leads to private and public Watergates. "

Outwardly, there's no hint that a rebellion against the traditional approach to education is going on.

In fact, Hyde looks like any other prep school with money.
An ivy-covered iron fence defines the main part of the wooded 150-acre campus in a residential section of Bath, Maine's most important shipbuilding city since Colonial days.

A gently cursing drive sweeps up to an imposing mansion used for administrative quarters, faculty offices, the cafeteria and library. The 63-room brick house was built in 1913 by John S. Hyde, owner of Hyde Windlass. His lavishness shows in what is now Gauld's office (once Hyde's billiard room) which is decorated with dark oak paneling from an Italian castle, and on every wall are silver lamp sconces.

It all looks very boarding-schoolish. The school motto is appropriately painted on the fireplace and on Gauld's oversized [illegible] is a somber caution from Chairman Mag: "Talks, speeches, articles and resolutions should all be concise and to the point, meetings also should not go on too long."

About the only hint that life is different at Hyde is a toy monkey in a red coat and short blue pants dangling from the chandelier in Gauld's parlor. Hanging around its neck is a sign that says. "Hang in there baby."

The monkey's message is directed at the students, whom Gauld hopes will find strength and humor in it.

To understand the Hyde approach to education, you first have to know Joe Gauld, who believes that 1) he can change the entire concept of education, and 2) he knows kids as well as anyone else in the world and the best ways of extracting character development.

Gauld rose from behind his desk and almost tripped over his three-foot high world globe in his rush to greet me. He wasn't what I had expected.

The 47-year-old educator had just returned from a boating expedition with some of his teachers. He was tanned, tall and lean, with a thick black mustache, sideburns, a full smile, sparkling white teeth and casually dressed in a grey terrycloth shirt and blue trousers. He looked more like an Esquire model than a headmaster.

"Some people think I'm a nut," he said disarmingly.

Without clarifying that point, Gauld then leaned back in his straight-backed chair and rushed into his philosophy about education and character development:
"What American education needs is accountability.
"Our system of education is obsolete and blocks a kid's true growth. The first thing we need to do is change the premise that academics is the key to excellence.
"We've got to stop coddling, indulging, spoiling, protecting and sheltering our kids. We need to find a sense of toughness again.
"Conflict is necessary to real growth.
"Each kid at Hyde gets something tough to do."

Gauld appeared relaxed but intense as he went on. Even when he eased up during our two-hour interview, there seemed to be a million explosions going on inside his head.

He was convincing, charming, commanding, flamboyant, a super analyzer. But at times he got caught up in his own rhetoric.

He kept using the word "tough" to describe what Hyde students should be. But Gauld also pursues that same quality and expects his teachers to do so.

He mentioned a personal confrontation with toughness which he described in his first weekly column for the Maine Sunday Telegram in April, 1973.

Gauld has a fear of height. But to make a point about courage and toughness with his son, Malcolm, he went to Hurricane Island, home of the Eastern Outward Bound program, to climb an 80-foot cliff. (Hyde and Outward Bound have collaborated on endurance testing trials.) Gauld says he climbed the cliff despite his fear of height.

After all, Gauld says he doesn't expect more from his students or his staff than he is willing to do himself.

"One reason I can understand kids so well is that I've been there before. I was the born-loser type too, interested in partying and having a good time more than in developing my character," he said.

Gauld sees himself as a child in many of the students who enroll at Hyde.

"I was well-to-do, came from a middle-class family with strong New England ties. My relatives owned the S.D. Warren paper company in Westbrook. My mother was an alcoholic and my stepfather... a stern authoritarian.

"I grew up in Washington where my stepfather was President Roosevelt's Commissioner of Highways and Conservation for the Work Projects Administration (WPA) before World War II.

"I was really a bad student when I was a child... always looking out the window, unproductive, lazy. I felt I was a born loser and didn't believe I would ever go any place."

Luckily for Gauld, his brother pressured him into studying in order to graduate from Wellesley High School, where the family had moved after the war.

Because of family connections, Gauld got a trial run at Bowdoin College in the summer of 1945. He was graduated from that institution three years later with a degree in economics. Gauld, who always wanted to teach, went on to get a master's degree in math from Boston University, assuming all the while that his character was developing nicely.

Gauld's first teaching Job was at New Hampton in central New Hampshire. He and his wife lived in two rooms, assembled orange crates for furniture and made $1,800 a year.

Gauld taught math and coached basketball, baseball and football at New Hampton. He stayed on for 13 years, becoming head of the math department, director of athletics, director of administration and assistant headmaster.

"I still trusted the system and that it worked. I trusted what was good for me and my development was good for my students. "But it really began to hit me after a while that then was no correlation of success with the educational system and my kids [illegible] really didn't matter who took Calculus One and who didn't, so far as their ability to handle life."

Fed up with education based on good marks, Gauld left New Hampton and tried unsuccessfully to start an independent school in Washington, D.C. He couldn't find financial backers; so, he took an offer to become headmaster at Berwick Academy in South Berwick, Maine.

"I concluded that the only way to affect change was to get at the top of the educational structure," he added.

Gauld's two-year stint at Berwick was tempestuous.

"I was a turkey out to beat the world," Gauld went on. He refused to listen to the wishes of the academy's board of trustees, which angered them to the point they gave him a no-confidence vote after his first year. But the board didn't go so far as to fire him.

"It didn't even occur to them they should fire anyone who, in their eyes, was successful. I had brought in more money and more students, so they kept me," Gauld said. "But I leveled with them and told them Berwick wouldn't be run around the trustees' table, that students and faculty must be given a real voice. Eventually when they saw they couldn't get to me, they fired me, and I resigned. I was much more informal than they wanted."

At loose ends again, Gauld was ready to gamble all he had on a type of school whose chief goal would be to help kids develop their character.

Aided by Sumner Hawley, his right-hand assistant since New Hampton school days (and husband of Gannet Publishing Co. president Jean Gannett Hawley in whose Sunday Telegram Gauld's column appears) he found his green spot in Bath.

After considerable negotiations with financial backers and digging into the Warren family inheritance, Gauld bought for $160,000 the Hyde mansion which was being used as headquarters for the Pine Tree Society for Crippled Children and Adults.

"It was like a bloody revolution the first year," he said. "People thought we had a lot of crazy ideas, and sometimes when the kids would see what the school was doing, they would just turn around and leave.

"At that time, I honestly didn't know if my style of character development would work. My gut feeling was that if it could work, someone would have done it.

"I had seen character developed. I had done it," Gauld said. "I knew it made 'the' difference. I had gone through part of my life without character. Now I had it; I saw the difference it made; and I wanted to show these kids how it pays off."

Continued on reply...

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